14 March 2021

Russian Railroad Maps 1877-1912

This is a collection of German language Russian railroad maps between 1877 and 1912. This covers the period when there was mass German emigration from Russia to North America and South America. Those who are curious about how their ancestors made their way to ports in the west (Antwerp, Bremen, Hamburg, Libau, etc.) can use the map closest to the time period when your ancestor left Russia and trace the path back. 

The first railroads in Russia began running in 1838. Each tsar had a different impact on the expansion of railroads through the empire, the result of which you can see with increased private and freight railroads over time on the maps below. Some of the German colonies were on or near a railway, while a few had railway stops.  

Timeline of Railroads in Russia

1835    Tsar Nicholas I (26 December 1825 – 2 March 1855) approved construction of the first railroad in Russia. Through the reign of Nicholas I, railroads were built and administered by the State. 
1838    The first railroad between St. Petersburg and Zarskoye Selo began operating.
1851    The railroad segment between Moscow and St. Petersburg opened; Moscow became the central hub of the Russian railroad network.
1855    Through the reign of Alexander II (2 March 1855 – 13 March 1881), railroads were built and administered by private companies. Existing railroads were also administered by private companies.
1871    Railroad connections from Kiev to Moscow and Odessa were in place.
1874    The Moscow-Charkov-Simferopol railroad segment was completed.
1881    Through the reign of Alexander III (13 March 1881 – 1 November 1894), there was a return to the idea of ​​State railways and a large number of private companies were nationalized.
1891    Construction began on the Trans-Siberian Railroad.
1894    Through the reign of Nicholas II (1 November 1894 – 15 March 1917), there was a continuation of what Alexander III put in place with state railways, nationalization, and so forth. 
1896    In the Russian-Chinese mutual assistance pact, China receives a concession from Russia for the construction of the East China Railroad.
1898    Russia leased from China the Liaodong Peninsula, together with the port of Port Arthur (Lüshen), with the concession to connect it with the Eastern Railroad.
1904    The construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad was completed.

1877


Title: “Eisenbahn Karte des Europäischen Russland” (Railroad Map of European Russia)
Date: 1877
Notes:  This was published as a supplement to the St. Petersburger Kalender (Beilage zum St. Petersburger Kalender). While previous editions of the St. Petersburger Kalendar had lists of Russian railroad lines in them, this was the first edition I located that included an actual map. It is the oldest map in this collection. The legend notes completed railroads, railroads under construction, confirmed railroads, and planned railroad lines. 

1892


























Title: “Neueste Eisenbahn Karte des Europäischen Russland” (Latest Railroad Map of European Russia)
Date: 1892
Notes:  This map has two smaller maps that show railroad lines through some of Central Asia and Far East Russia bordering China and the Sea of Japan. 

1909


Title: “Eisenbahn Karte des Europäischen Russland” (Railroad Map of European Russia)
Date: 1909
Notes:  This was published as a supplement to the Neuen Haus- und Land-Wirtschafts Kalender (Beilage zum Neuen Haus- und Land-Wirtschafts Kalender). This map is accompanied by a list of fares that can be viewed here. 

1912


Title: “Die russichen Eisenbahn” (The Russian Railway)
Date: 1912
Notes:  A very detailed map showing every stop on each railroad line. It shows state run railroad lines, private rail lines, and freight lines. It also includes several detailed maps of cities and regions. 


Learn More:


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01 March 2021

Lustdorf, Liebental


Two views of the main street in Lustdorf, circa 1910. The top shows the church on the right. 

Lustdorf (also known as Kaiserscheim, Olgino and Khernomorka) was a Lutheran Mother colony in the Liebental district of Russia near the Black Sea. Among the earliest colonies in the Black Sea area, it was founded in 1804 or 1805 southwest of the city of Odessa. The closest German colony to it was Kleinliebental just 3.5 miles (5.7 kilometers) to the west. 


Lustdorf on an 1855 map of Lutheran settlements in Russia. 

Lustdorf on a 1910 map of the 3rd Military Survey of Austria-Hungary.

It became populated with skilled craftsmen who worked in Odessa, so less land was allotted to the colony for agriculture. In 1859, there were 45 houses in Lustdorf. The church was built in 1869/70. The congregation paid 39,832 rubles for it. It had 300 seats and Walker organ with 11 stops.  


The Lutheran church in Lustdorf, circa 1910. 


By the late 1800s, Lustdorf had developed into a sea-side resort, spa and sanatorium, and soon, a tram from the great fountain in Odessa to Lustdorf brought Russian visitors directly to the colony for rest, relaxation, and rejuvenation.


Lustdorf was incorporated into the city of Odessa after 1945. Today it’s a neighborhood in the city named Chornomorka. The name Lustdorf hasn't been lost to history. There is still a tram stop named “Lystdorf Settlement.”


• • •

My personal connection to Lustdorf is my 4x great-grandfather, Johann Martin Schilling. He was my first ancestor to arrive in Russia. The month of March marked both a beginning and an ending for Martin. In March 1809, Martin and his family travelled from Steinsfurt near Sinsheim in Baden to Frankfurt am Main. There they stayed between 23 March to 4 April waiting to begin their journey to Russia. They arrived in Glückstal in July 1809. He was 42 years old. On 3 March 1848, Martin Schilling died in Lustdorf where he was living with one of his younger sons. He was 81 years old and had lived in Russia nearly half of his very long life. 

I imagine Martin as an old man by the sea looking out over the water. He stands tall with still mostly dark hair that he rakes back with his fingers as the wind gusts. He rubs his tired blue eyes and remembers where he came from, how far he has come, and he reassures himself, “I did the best I could.” I have heard these words from his descendants time and again; I hear his baritone voice supporting theirs, a major chord across time. We all do the best we can. No man can ever judge if it was enough.


Sources:



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22 February 2021

Gnadental, Bessarabia

Plat map of Gnadental, Bessarabia circa 1920 published in 1930.

The following translated excerpts came from and article entitled “Die Gemeinde Gnadental” by Friedrich Rüb, which appeared in the 1930 edition of Deutscher Volkskalender für Bessarabien. 

“The founding of the community of Gnadental coincides with the end of immigration of German colonists in Russia, namely in the period when official advertisements for emigrants in Germany to move to Russia had stopped ten years earlier. The settlers were, therefore, uninvited, free emigrants to whom the Russian government did not give any support, neither for the journey, nor for the first establishment. Gnadental is the 21st German community in Bessarabia.”

Map showing the land plot that would become Gnadental, Bessarabia. Date is unknown, but it was likely before 1830 given the other colonies noted on the map.

“The settlement took place in the years 1830-1833 on land which had been made available to Provost Lindl in 1822. From a petition from the Sarata school board 29 April 1829, the Welfare committee approved the establishment of the colony as per letter dated 14 May1829 [document] No. 716.... At the time of settlement, the land was leased...to some Moldovans, who used it as pasture for their sheep...”

During the first years, Gnadental was officially named “Sarata No. 2”. 

“In the second year of the settlement (1831), cholera prevailed in Gnadental as in the whole area, which demanded many victims. The merciful averting of this evil gave reason to name this colony ‘Gnadental’ [Mercy Valley]. This name was presented to the municipality through the Sarata Territorial Office for the Welfare Committee for confirmation, which was done, and granted dated August 1832 [document] No. 1043.”

An 1872 Austrian military map showing Gnadental with its former name. 

“In the spring of 1830 the settlement was started with 10 families, to which, in the same year another 12 families were added. These 22 families were joined by another 12 families in 1831, so that towards the end of that year, the colony had 34 families with a total of 168 souls. Two families ceded their farms soon after their arrival. In 1832, another 37 families settled, and in 1833, the last 11 families arrived. The settlement of the colony was completed in 1833 with 80 families and a total of 455 souls. The settlers of Gnadental did travel as an organized group. They came from 40 villages in Württemberg, mostly did not know each other before settlement, and came to Gnadental over the course of four years.”

   
Church exterior (left) and interior (right). Built in 1880.

The first church services were held in a private house. In 1833, the first prayer house was built on the square where the church stands today. The original church was replaced in 1880 by master builder Klaus Lorenz, a German citizen from Odessa, for 25,000 rubles. 

Top: The old school house built in 1847. Bottom: The new school house built in 1862.

“At the same time as the colony was founded, school life also began. Since there was no school house, school was held in a farmhouse. The settlers created the school they were used to from Germany and which corresponded to their religious attitude. It was a distinctly religious school. In 1833, the third year of the settlement, a special school class was built under one roof with the prayer house, in which school was held until 1846. The first 17 years, the teachers were local landlords. A turn for the better came in 1846, when an expertly trained teacher in the person of Johann Jakob Koch was employed, and the first school building was erected.... Until 1861 all pupils from the age of 8-15 were were accommodated in one classroom....the more talented pupils were not sufficiently engaged....but attendance was compulsory until confirmation.”

Street view in Gnadental. Western half of main street, circa 1930.

Today Gnadental is called Dolynivka, Odes'ka, Ukraine.

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16 February 2021

1890 Map of German Land Ownership in the Kherson Governorate


Map legend with translation.

The last set of maps I shared was a collection of Lutheran maps from 1855. This is another period map that some may find useful in illustrating family histories. This is from 1890 with updates apparently made in 1942. By this point, many German colonists in this area had already begun emigrating from Russia to North and South America. 

I found this map while going through the last film of the German Captured Documents Collection, Reports from Ethnic German Communities in Ukraine 1940-44 on FamilySearch a few weeks ago. I've been stitching together all of the maps from that collection when I need a break from other research work.  

This map is titled the Schematic map of German land ownership in Kherson Governorate in 1890, and it was found on the last film, #8878483. On the map, the source is listed as “L. Padalka, Landbesitz der ehm. deutschen Kolonisten im Gouvernment Cherson 1891, edited by Karl Stumpp, 1943.” Stumpp was in this area between 1942 and 1943 while he was working for Reichsministerium für die Besetzten Ostgebiete (Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories). At this point in this project, I thought I had seen all of Stumpp’s maps, but this is the first time I've seen this particular map. And Ive not found a reference to it elsewhere as of this writing. 

Although this map only covers the Cherson area, it is interesting because it outlines the areas that were initially allotted to the German colonists by the Crown and additional land that had been purchased. Many of the German daughter colonies are shown as settlements among the native population, and probably colonies of other ethnicities as Germans were not the only group invited to settle in Russia. 

Also of interest are the names of the places. The enclaves of this area are fairly well-represented based on what is known from other sources. There are several settlements that had the same name—not unusual at all. But there are many I've never heard of before, are not on Stumpps other maps, and that do not show up in the German-Russian Handbook. Below is an alphabetical list so that Google can index them.


Akerman, Alexanderhilf, Alexandrija, Alexandrowka, Alexandrowka, Alexandrowka, Alexandrowka, Alexandrowka, Alexfeld, Alt Danzig, Ananjew, Andrijaschewka, Annental, Antonowka, Antonowka, Antonowka, Baden, Balta, Bendery, Beresnegowataja, Bergdorf, Berislaw, Biziljewka, Blumenfeld, Blumenfeld, Blumenort, Bogdanowka, Boska, Brinowka, Cherson, Danilowka, Deutsche Güter, Deutsche Güter, Deutsche Güter, Deutsches Gut, Deutsches Gut, Dodonowka, Dubossary, Eigendorf, Eigenfeld, Eigenfeld, Elsass, Felsenburg, Felsenburg, Franzfeld, Freudental, Friedenfeld, Friedental, Fürstental, Gawrlowka, Georgiental, Glückstal, Golowlewka, Grossulowo, Grus Kaja, Güldendorf, Gut Ambarow, Gut Ambarow, Gut Hofmann, Gut Linke, Gut Nam, Gut Udatschnyj, Güter Dauenhauer, Güter Guhl, Güter v. Domauer u. Schart, Halbstadt, Helenowka, Hoffnungsburg, Hoffnungstal, Hoffnungstal, Jelisawetgrad, Jelisawetpol, Jeremejewka, Jewgeniewka, Jewstafjewka, Johannestal, Johannestal, Josefstal, Josefstal, Jsbaschewka, Jshitzkaja, Jsmailowka, Jwanowka, Kandel, Karlsfeld, Karlsruhe, Kassel, Katerinental, Katerinental, Kellerhausen, Kerstinowka, Klein Bergdorf, Klein Liebental, Klein Neudorf, Kleinendorf, Kleinfeld, Kleinfeld, Klosterdorf, Kopeikina, Krementschug, Kriwoj-Rog, Kronau, Landau, Landau, Lichetenfeld, Ljubomichailowka, Lustdorf, Malaja Jschetschelewka, Mannheim, Mariental, Mesendewka, Milaljubowka, Mülhausendorf, München, Nadeschdowka, Nasarow Jar, Neu Berlin, Neu Danzig, Neu Freudental, Neu Glückstal, Neu Kronental, Neu Lustdorf, Neu Odessa, Neu Schönsee, Neuburg, Neudorf, Neufeld, Neuheim, Neusatz, New Beresinna, Nikolaidorf, Nikolajewka, Nowakowka, Nowo Ukrainka, Nowobiziljewka, Nowomannilowka, Nowomirgorod, Noworushino, Odessa, Olgina, Olwiopol, Otradnajadolina, Otrodowka, Otschakow, Owidiopol, Petersfeld, Peterstal, Petratjewka, Petrowerowka, Petrowka, Platonowka, Podmogilnaja, Pondik, Prijut, Protopopowka, Rastadt, Reimarowka, Rohrbach, Rosenfeld, Sacharowka, Sakretarowka, Sawitschewka, Schlangendorf, Schöntal, Selz, Skarbnaja, Sofijewka, Sofronowka, Sokolowka, Solnzewka, Speier, Steinbach, Steinberg, Steingut, Stepkowka, Strassburg, Stschasliwka, Sulz, Taschlyk, Tiege, Tiraspol, Trudoljubowka, Viktorowka, Wassiljewka, Waterloo, Werchnjednjeprowsk, Weselyj Kut, Worms, Wosnjassensk, Zybulewka

09 February 2021

"Welcome to the Big Apple...in eastern Ukraine"

Scrolling through my Twitter feed last night, I saw these words: “Welcome to the Big Apple...in eastern Ukraine.” 

It was an article in Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty about the town of Novhorodske in Ukraine voting soon to restore its name back to its original name: New York. According to the article, it was changed in 1951 due to Cold War tensions with the United States.

I immediately thought, I know where New York is. That was a German Mennonite colony.

This morning, I looked it up on my map, and, indeed, it was a Mennonite daughter colony. The land was purchased by the Chortitza colony. 

AHSGR map #24Map of the German settlements in the Stalino region (former East part of the governorate of Jekaterinoslav and West part of the Don region), including the German villages in the eastern part of the Kharkov region


From the German-Russian Handbook (pp.564-565).
New-York, Don, Donets’k, Dzerzhinsk, Shelesnaya. The village was located on the Torez River and a steep mountain slope. #C 4. Founded in 1889. Mennonite; parish: New-York, also Mennonite Brethren; parish: Nikola(y)evka. A small number were part of the Nikola(y)evka Brethren community. A junior high school was founded in 1905, and a secondary school for girls (Progymnasium) in 1912. School for those unable to pay tuition, steam and rolling mills (Unger and Dyck, the owner and founder(s)), agricultural machinery factory (Niebuhr), brickyard (Unger), bookstore (Hamm); according to another source: cooperative and/or cooperative store, school with grades one to seven (as of 1926.) The mother colony of Khortitza bought the estate for people without land. Acreage: 3,138 dessi. Population: 426 in 1911; 926 in 1913; 926 in 1914; 926 in 1918; 953 in 1926. Also see York, New-.
 
Ignatyevo Colony from the Mennonite Historical Atlas, pg 31.


According to William Schroeder and Helmut T. Heubert’s Mennonite Historical Atlas, New York was a part of the Ignatyevo Colony.

New York was founded in 1889, one of the first six villages of the Ignatyevo Colony. It was situated along the banks of the Krivoy Torets River, close to the town of Zheleznaya. The name “New York” was in response to a request by the wife of Count Ignatieff (from whom the land was purchased), who, being an American, was likely pining for some reminder of her homeland. 

Besides the usual agriculture, industry soon developed in New York, especially because of the proximity of the Khar'kov-Mariupol' railroad. A number of factories were built, among them that of the J.G. Niebuhr company, which manufactured a wide range of farm implements. There were a number of steam mills, brickyards, stores and even a windmill. By 1913, [the] total population reached 926.

There were two elementary schools in New York. In 1905 a secondary school (Zentralschule) was founded. The first teachers were Heinrich Funk and Gerhard Froese. A girls’ school opened its doors in 1907, the principal sponsor being J.J. Thiessen, the leading teacher, Viktoria Klein.

The New York Mennonite Church was organized in 1892, the first elder being Abraham Unruh. By 1905, including affiliates in Borissovo, Grigoryevka and the Azov Forestry Camp, the congregation numbered 2,275, although local baptized membership was only 600. There were undoubtedly Mennonite Brethren living in New York, but their house of worship was in Nikolayevka. 

New York suffered the same fate in later years as the rest of the Ignatyevo Colony...including difficulties...during the revolutionary period, a particularly heavy raid by Makhno [Nestor Ivanovych Makhno, Ukrainian anarchist revolutionary and the commander of an independent anarchist army in Ukraine from 1917–21] coming in February, 1919. There appeared to be some economic recovery in the 1920s, but in 1942, the entire population of the colony was evacuated by the Soviets before the German armies reached the area...

Plat map of New York from the Mennonite Historical Atlas, pg. 32




If the vote passes, I look forward to changing the name back its original and restoring a little bit of German history. 

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